Nephrology

Chronic Kidney disease…..

 A silent killer

The term “chronic kidney disease” means lasting damage to the kidneys that can get worse over time. If the damage is very bad, your kidneys may stop working. This is called kidney failure, or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). If your kidneys fail, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant in order to live.

  1. Who is affected?
    • 10% of the population worldwide is affected by CKD
    • CKD can affect people of all ages and races
    • Half of people aged 75 have some degree of CKD
    • 1 in 5 men and 1in 4 women between 65-74 have CKD
  1. What Causes CKD

Anyone can get CKD. Some people are more at risk than others. Some things that increase your risk for CKD include:

  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Heart disease
  • Having a family member with kidney disease
  • Being African-American, Hispanic, Native American or Asian
  • Being over 60 years old
  1. Symptoms of chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) usually gets worse slowly, and symptoms may not appear until your kidneys are badly damaged. In the late stages of CKD, as you are nearing kidney failure (ESRD), you may notice symptoms that are caused by waste and extra fluid building up in your body.

You may notice one or more of the following symptoms if your kidneys are beginning to fail:

  • Muscle cramps
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Not feeling hungry
  • Swelling in your feet and ankles
  • too much urine (pee) or not enough urine
  • Trouble catching your breath
  • Trouble sleeping

If your kidneys stop working suddenly (acute kidney failure), you may notice one or more of the following symptoms:

  • Abdominal (belly) pain
  • Back pain

Having one or more of any of the symptoms above may be a sign of serious kidney problems. If you notice any of these symptoms, you should contact your doctor right away.

  1. Complications of CKD

Your kidneys help your whole body work properly. When you have CKD, you can also have problems with how the rest of your body is working. Some of the common complications of CKD include anemia, bone disease, heart disease, high potassium, high calcium and fluid buildup

  1. Stages of CKD

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) refers to all 5 stages of kidney damage, from very mild damage in Stage 1 to complete kidney failure in Stage 5. The stages of kidney disease are based on how well the kidneys can do their job – to filter waste and extra fluid out of the blood  

  1. How to detect CKD
    • a. Early CKD often has no sign or symptoms. A person can lose up to 90% of their kidney function before experiencing and signs.
    • But it can be detectedby simple tests:
      • A urine test to check if there is any protein in your urine or
      • Or a blood test to measure the level of creatinine in your blood
    • Signs of advancing CKD: swollen ankles, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, decreased appetite, and foamy urine.
  1. How can I prevent CKD?

Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common causes of CKD. If you have diabetes or high blood pressure, working with your doctor to keep your blood sugar and blood pressure under control is the best way to prevent kidney disease.

Living a healthy lifestyle can help prevent diabetes, high blood pressure and kidney disease, or help keep them under control. Follow these tips to lower your risk for kidney disease and the problems that cause it:

  • Follow a low-salt, low-fat diet
  • Exercise at least 30 minutes on most days of the week
  • Have regular check-ups with your doctor
  • Do not smoke or use tobacco
  • Limit alcohol
  1. Did you know that your kidneys:
    • Make urine
    • Remove wastes and extra fluid from your blood.
    • Control your body’s chemical balance
    • Help control your blood pressure
    • Help keeps your bones healthy
    • Help you make red blood cells

The 8 golden roles to reduce risk

Kidney diseases are silent killer, which will largely affect your quality of life. There are however several easy ways to reduce the risk of developing kidney diseases

  • Keep fit and active
  • Keep regular control of your blood sugar
  • Monitor your blood pressure
  • East healthy and keep your weight in check
  • Maintain a healthy fluid intake
  • Do not smoke
  • Do not take over the counter pills on regulr basis
  • Get your kidney function checked if you have one or more of the following high risk factors
  • You have diabetes
  • You have hypertension
  • You are overweight
  • One of your parents or other family suffers from CKD
  • You are off Asian/African origin

Kidney-friendly diet for CKD

You need to have a kidney-friendly meal plan when you have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Watching what you eat and drink will help you stay healthier. A kidney-friendly diet may also help protect your kidney from further damage by limiting certain foods to prevent the minerals in those foods from building up in your body.

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